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C programming (2)

 

WHILE COMMAND

while (expression) statement

while ( number != 0)

{

printf("%3d\n", number);

printf("Input an integer number - terminate with 0\n");

scanf("%d", &number);

}


double number;

number = 2.0;

while (number <= 10.0)

{......

number=number+0.5;

}


 

DO WHILE COMMAND

do statement while (expression);

 

do

{

printf("Input an integer number");

scanf("%2d", &number);

}

while (number != 0);

 

L VALUES

 

counter++ increases counter by one

counter- - decreases counter by one

printf("%2d", counter++); prints the old value of counter

printf("%2d", ++counter); prints the new value of counter

 

FOR COMMAND

 

for (expression-1 ; expression-2 ; expression-3 ) statement

 

Expression 1: initialisation of loop control variable

Expression 2: conditional expression

Expression 3: changes value of loop control variable

Anyone of the three expressions can be optional


 

int counter;

for (counter = 1; counter < 4; counter ++)

printf("%2d", counter);


 

counter = 1;

for (; counter < 4; counter ++)

printf("%2d", counter);


 

for (counter = 1 ; ; counter++)

{

printf("%2d", counter);

if (counter == 3) break;

}


 

for(counter = 1; counter < 4;)

printf(%2d", counter++);


 

THE DEFINE COMMAND

 

#define pi 3.14159

#define magic "ambracadambra"

 

 

MATHEMATICS LIBRARY <math.h>

Sin(x)

Cos(x)

Tan(x)

Sinh(x)

Cosh(x)

Tanh(x)

Asin(x)

Acos(x)

Atan(x)

Atan2(x,y)

Returns the arctangent of y/x

Log(x)

Returns the natural logarithm of x

Log10(x)

Returns the base 10 logarithm of x

Exp(x)

Pow(x,y)

Raises x to the power of y

Sqrt(x)

Fabs(x)

Returns the absolute value of x

Int abs(int num)

Returns the absolute value of an integer number

Int rand(void)

Returns pseudo-random number in the range 0-rand_max

 

#include <stdio.h>

#include<math.h>

#define pi 3.14159

#define tangent(x) (float)tan(x*pi/180.0)

for (angle = 0; angle<=20; angle++)

printf("%d\t %6.4f\n", angle, tangent(angle));


 

#include <stdio.h>

#include<math.h>

#define logarithm(b,n) (log(n) / log(b))

for (base=2; base<=10; base=base+2)

printf("8.4f", logarithm(base , number));

 

 

ARRAYS

The contents of all cells in an array MUST be of the same data type, e.g all real numbers

ONE DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS

int numbers[7] ; one dimensional array of 7 elements, starting from 0 and ending at 6.

int numbers[5] = {54,26,99,-25,13};

int numbers[ ] = {54,26,99,-25,13};

numbers[0]=54;

numbers[1]=26;

numbers[2]=99;

numbers[3]=-25;

numbers[4]=13;

for (index=0; index < 5; index++)

scanf(%2d", &numbers[index])

 

THE STATIC COMMAND

The command static gives initial values to the matrices. For example:

static int numbers[7];

All the elements of matrix numbers have the initial value of zero.

static int numbers[7]={1,2,3};

The three first elements of the matrix get the values 1, 2,3 and then the rest elements take the value of zero.

 

TWO-DIMENSIONAL ARRAYS

 

int matrix[3][4];

int matrix[3][4] = { {1,2,3}, {2,1,6}, {3,9,0} } ;

for (row=0; row <3; row++)

{

for (column=0; column < 6; column++)

printf("%2d\t", matrix[row][column]) ;

}

 

STRUCTURES

main()

{

typedef struct {

int day;

int month;

int year;

} date_of_birth;

date_of_birth birthday;

scanf("%d%d%d" , &birthday.day, &birthday.month, &birthday.year);

printf("day %d\n" , birthday.day);

}


 

main()

{

typedef struct {

int day;

int month;

int year;

} date_of_bearth;

 

date_of_bearth birthdays[5] = { { 11, 10, 1953},

{ 18 , 3, 1948},

{14, 6, 1920} } ;

int index;

for (index=0; index < 5; index++)

printf("%-3d%-3d%4d\n", birthday[index].day,

birthday[index].month,

birthday[index].year);

}


 

FUNCTIONS

int square(num)

int num

{

int answer ;

answer=num*num;

return answer;

}

main()

{

extern int square()

int solution, input_val;

 

printf("Enter integer value");

scanf("%2d", &input_val);

solution=square(input_val);

printf("The square of %d is %d\n" , input_val, solution);

exit(0)

}


 

void incr(val)

int val;

{

val++

}

main()

{

extern void incr();

int a=3;

printf("Value of variable a before calling incr: %d\n", a);

incr(a);

printf("Value of variable a after calling incr: %d\n", a);

exit(0);

}

Output: prints number 3 two times.


void incr(val)

int *val;

{

(*val)++

}

main()

{

extern void incr();

int a=3;

printf("Value of variable a before calling incr: %d\n", a);

incr(&a);

printf("Value of variable a after calling incr: %d\n", a);

exit(0);

}

Output: prints numbers 3 and 4.

 


POINTERS

int *P; The pointer is defined.

Arrays

static int table[ ] ={1,2,3,4,5};

int *p;

p= &table[0];

 

The pointer p points to the first element of the matrix table.

*(table+0)=table[0]

*(table+1)=table[1]

...

*(table+i)=table[i]


 

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

main()

{

  int *P, *Q

P = malloc(sizeof(int));

printf("Input a single integer "); scanf("%2d",P);

Q = P;

printf("Value of the integer being pointed at is %d\n" , *Q);

free(P)

}

Output: Input a single integer 12345

Value of integer being pointed at is 12345

malloc(b)

Returns a pointer in a consecutive series of b bytes. If the wanted (zitoumenos) place is available , it returns \0.

calloc(n,t)

Returns a pointer in a consecutive series of as many bites as they are required for storing n numbers (stoixeia) of type t. If the wanted place is not available, it returns \0.

realloc(p,b)

Changes the dimensions of the object at which the pointer p points, from what it was, to b.

free(p)

Apodesmeuei to xoro pou dexnei o deiktis p kai o opoios prepei na exei demseuthei me mia apo tis sinastiseis malloc or calloc.

 

 FILES

REDIRECTION

Program called : exa.c

Input files with data: numbers.txt

Output file to write data: results.txt

Redirections of results:

A) For DOS:

exa <a:\numbers.txt > a:\results.txt

B) For UNIX

cc exa.c -o run

run <numbers.txt>results.txt

 

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